Canticle: A Longer Sanctus

Image result for russia lutheran christus pantocrator
Christos Pantokrator, Russian Icon, 18th century

Holy, holy, holy Lord,
God almighty!
Heaven and earth
are full of your glory.

We worship you.
We give you thanks for your marvelous deeds,
Lord God, heavenly King,
God and Father, Almighty Lord.

Jesus Christ, only Son of the most high,
Holy Spirit, Spirit of peace, truth and grace,
to you, eternal God, be praise for all your works.

Your might is eternal,
and your love unwavering.
Look with mercy on your people
who gather in your sanctuary to worship you,
to thank you for all your benefits for body and soul,
to implore your grace
to enlighten us in knowledge of you
and to instruct our hearts,
that we may bring the holy offerings
of devout obedience to you.

Source: Agende für die Evangelisch-Lutherischen Gemeinden im Russischen Reiche, 1832, an alternative canticle to the Gloria in Excelsis, p. 6-7

This canticle seems to blend the Trisagion, an opening hymn in Eastern Orthodox worship, with the Gloria in Excelsis, along with some other elements.

Original in German:

Heiliger! Heiliger! Heiliger! HErr! Gott! Allmächtiger! Himmel und Erde sind Deiner Herrlichkeit voll; wir beten Dich an, wir danken Dir für Deine Wunder, HErr Gott! himmlischer König! Gott Vater! Allmächtiger HErr! eingeborner Sohn des Allerhöchsten! Jesus Christus! Heiliger Geist! Geist des Friedens, der Wahrheit und der Gnade! Dich, ewiger Gott, loben alle Deine Werke; ewig , wie  Du selbst, ist Deine Macht, unwandelbar Deine Liebe; blicke mit Milde herab auf Dein Volk, welches versammelt ist in Deinem Heiligthutne, Dich anzubeten, Dir zu danken für Deine Wohlhaten, und für sich, im Geistigen und Leiblichen, Deine Gnade zu erflehen ; erleuchte unsern Verstand zu Deiner Erkenntniss und lehre unsere Herzen, die heiligen Opfer eines ächten Gehorsams darzubringen!

Agnus Dei / Lamb of God

File:AGNUS DEI.jpgIn most liturgies, the Agnus Dei immediately follows the Words of Institution. The Agnus Dei is based on John the Baptist’s short sermon, “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world.” This short song brings the liturgy of the Divine Service to a sort of fulfillment. In the Kyrie we sang “Lord, have mercy. Christ, have mercy. Lord, have mercy.” In the Agnus Dei, this is repeated: “Lamb of God,… have mercy on us,… have mercy on us,… grant us peace.” In the Gloria in Excelsis we sang most of the words while singing the praise of Christ, “Lord God, Lamb of God, you take away the sin of the world: have mercy on us.” The words of the Agnus Dei also reflect on the words of Jesus in the Lord’s Supper, “Given and poured out for you for the forgiveness of sins.”

In one form or another, the Agnus Dei has been part of the Western Rite since the seventh century. It is has been called the “fraction anthem,” meaning that the bread for Holy Communion would be broken while it is sung. In some traditions, the distribution of Holy Communion begins with the Agnus Dei. Here is the standard English text from ELLC:

Lamb of God, you take away the sin of the world,
have mercy on us.
Lamb of God, you take away the sin of the world,
have mercy on us.
Lamb of God, you take away the sin of the world,
grant us peace.

The Latin text and other English versions of the text can be seen in this Wikipedia article.

The German translation from the time of the Reformation added “Christe,” or “O Christ,” either to clarify who the Lamb of God is, or to fill out the meter of the notes so that the German text could be sung to the same notes as the Latin. Here is the German tune from Luther’s Deutsches Messe, “Christe, du Lamm Gottes.” 

Agnus Dei
WELS Book of Hymns, 1920, 1931

And in the video it is sung with the English text, “O Christ, Lamb of God” at the 2017 WELS National Worship Conference.  It is preceded by an intonation and a new harmonization by Kermit Moldenhauer.

Since the Reformation, this hymn version of the Agnus Dei by Nicholas Decius was also sung as a German Agnus Dei:

Here it is in English with the new standard text in a contemporary setting by Ricky Manalo:

Here is the Latin text, sung to a setting by Samuel Barber. When performed by an orchestra with no choir, it is called the Adagio for Strings. It is very beautiful and haunting with the Latin text:

 

Sanctus / Holy, Holy, Holy

The Sanctus is in the Communion part of the Divine Service. The text comes from Isaiah’s vision of heaven (Isaiah 6) and John’s vision of heaven in Revelation (Revelation 4) and includes a phrase from the Palm Sunday Gospel, “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest” (Matthew 21:9). It is thought to have this place in the liturgy, at the end of a prayer of thanksgiving before the words of institution, since the fifth century. It’s origins in Christian worship may go back to the second century.

The use of “Holy, holy, holy,” together with “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord” has some doctrinal implications. When they heard the song or shout of the angels, “Holy, holy, holy,” Isaiah and John were in the presence of God. The Palm Sunday acclamation also states, “Your Savior is here.” There is a connection between the Sanctus and the doctrine of the real presence in the Lord’s Supper. (More on that below.)

Here is the standard liturgical text from ELLC:

Holy, holy, holy Lord, God of power and might,
heaven and earth are full of your glory.
Hosanna in the highest.
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.

Some arrangements use the phrase: “Lord, God of hosts.”

And the older English text from The Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church. “Sabaoth” is a Hebrew word meaning ‘armies’ or ‘hosts,’ as in the heavenly hosts of angels and all the power of nature. I’ll mention something more about this with the Greek text below:

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth;
Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory;
Hosanna in the highest.
Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord;
Hosanna in the highest.

The Book of Common Prayer inserts “Glory to thee,…” and makes “Blessed is he…” optional. This is because some Anglicans taught real presence and some taught representation in the doctrine of the Lord’s Supper. (I told you it was doctrinal!):

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts:
Heaven and earth are full of thy Glory.
Glory be to thee, O Lord Most High.

Here may be added

Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.

In Greek:

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ.
Πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου.
Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις.
Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου.
Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις.

The Greek text in Revelation 4 has παντοκρατωρ (pantokrator)instead of Σαβαώθ (Sabaoth). Pantokrator is a word that means “powerful over all.”

Text in Latin:

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus
Dominus Deus Sabaoth.
Pleni sunt cæli et terra gloria tua.
Hosanna in excelsis.
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
Hosanna in excelsis.

Some musical arrangements try to portray these words with the sublime bliss of heaven. Here’s one based on Pachelbel’s Kanon that is similar to the style of Enya:

Some arrangements seem to focus on the Pantokrator or Sabaoth, that the God who is present, our Saving God who comes to us, is powerful over all. Here it is as it appeared in The Lutheran Hymnal and also in Lutheran Service Book and in Christian Worship: A Lutheran Hymnal‘s Common Service.

Sanctus.png
WELS, Book of Hymns, 1920, 1931

This recording includes the Sursum Corda (a dialogue before the preface) the chant of the preface, and then the Sanctus. In different liturgy and accompaniment books, I could only find the tune credited as “traditional.” In an older German source (Choralbuch, Concordia, 1902),  this tune is listed with the note “Seit c. 1848 allhier verbreitet.” (“Widely used since around 1848”).

Here is Mozart’s Sanctus. (The video says its from his Requiem, but that is not correct. ):

Luther’s hymn Jesaia, dem Propheten, Isaiah, Mighty Seer in Days of Old retells the vision from Isaiah 6, and among German Lutherans, this hymn took the place of the Sanctus, or was even called the German Sanctus. Here it is as arranged by Michael Praetorius with much tone-painting that supports the meaning of the words:

And here is Isaiah, Mighty Seer sung in English at the 2017 WELS National Worship Conference. It is performed by a children’s choir, adult choir, assembly, organ, brass and percussion. I was there for the performance, and it also conveyed the awe and the power of our thrice-holy God. The recording begins with the Exhortation from Luther’s Deutsches Messe, and is followed by Isaiah, Mighty Seer:

Gloria in Excelsis / Glory to God in the Highest

The Gloria in Excelsis is a song of praise used in the Divine Service. It’s origin is in the eastern or Greek churches where it was first used as a song of praise in daily morning prayer. In the western churches it is used as the song of praise at the beginning of the Divine Service. It is a song of praise that begins with the text of the song of the angels on Christmas night. It addresses Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The Father’s supreme rule, the Son’s sacrifice and his sitting at his Father’s right hand over all things. It is sometimes called “the greater Gloria” in contrast to the “Gloria Patri.” 

Here is the English text from the Book of Common Prayer:

Glory be to God on high,
and on earth peace, good will towards men.

We praise thee,
we bless thee,
we worship thee,
we glorify thee,
we give thanks to thee for thy great glory,
O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father Almighty.

O Lord, the only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ;
O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father,
that takest away the sins of the world,
have mercy upon us.
Thou that takest away the sins of the world,
receive our prayer.
Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the Father,
have mercy upon us.

For thou only art holy;
thou only art the Lord;
thou only, O Christ,
with the Holy Ghost,
art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

Here is the English text from English Language Liturgical Consultation, 1988, which is the basis for most modern liturgical music. Some textual changes from the Book of Common Prayer were done to avoid some repetition of phrases, and to be closer also to the Greek text.

Glory to God in the highest,
and peace to his people on earth.

Lord God, heavenly King,
almighty God and Father,
we worship you,
we give you thanks,
we praise you for your glory.

Lord Jesus Christ,
only Son of the Father,
Lord God, Lamb of God,
you take away the sin of the world:
have mercy on us;
you are seated at the right hand of the Father:
receive our prayer.

For you alone are the Holy One,
you alone are the Lord,
you alone are the Most High,
Jesus Christ,
with the Holy Spirit,
in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

 

In Greek:

Δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις Θεῷ
καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰρήνη ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία.

Ὑμνοῦμέν σε,
εὐλογοῦμέν σε,
προσκυνοῦμέν σε,
δοξολογοῦμέν σε,
εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι, διὰ τὴν μεγάλην σου δόξαν.
Κύριε Βασιλεῦ, ἐπουράνιε Θεέ, Πάτερ παντοκράτορ,

Κύριε Υἱὲ μονογενές, Ἰησοῦ Χριστέ, καὶ Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα.
Κύριε ὁ Θεός, ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὁ Υἱός τοῦ Πατρός,
ὁ αἴρων τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμου, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς,
ὁ αἴρων τὰς ἁμαρτίας τοῦ κόσμου.
Πρόσδεξαι τὴν δέησιν ἡμῶν,
ὁ καθήμενος ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ Πατρός, καὶ ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς.
Ὅτι σὺ εἶ μόνος Ἅγιος,
σὺ εἶ μόνος Κύριος,
Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, εἰς δόξαν Θεοῦ Πατρός.
Ἀμήν.

In Latin:

Glória in excélsis Deo
et in terra pax homínibus bonæ voluntátis.

Laudámus te,
benedícimus te,
adorámus te,
glorificámus te,
grátias ágimus tibi propter magnam glóriam tuam,
Dómine Deus, Rex cæléstis,
Deus Pater omnípotens.

Dómine Fili unigénite, Jesu Christe,
Dómine Deus, Agnus Dei, Fílius Patris,
qui tollis peccáta mundi, miserére nobis;
qui tollis peccáta mundi, súscipe deprecatiónem nostram.
Qui sedes ad déxteram Patris, miserére nobis.

Quóniam tu solus Sanctus, tu solus Dóminus,
tu solus Altíssimus,
Jesu Christe,
cum Sancto Spíritu: in glória Dei Patris. Amen.

The Gloria in Excelsis has been set to music thousands of times. Any piece of music called a Mass or a Divine Service would include it. Here it is from Bach’s Mass in B Minor.

And here it is in German by Michael Praetorius:

It is also been the subject of contemporary or folk settings. Here is a setting by Ricky Manalo:

And here it is in Latin as a Gregorian chant:

Along with settings of the prose texts and translations, the Gloria in Excelsis has also been paraphrased into the form of a hymn. Here is “Allein Gott in der Hoh, sei Ehr,” which has been used as the German Gloria since the time of the Reformation:

Kyrie, Eleison / Lord, Have Mercy

Kyrie eleison (KI-ree-ay ay-LAY-ee-zonn) or “Lord, have mercy” is a short prayer that is important in Christian worship. It is a prayer from the heart about human need. God owes us nothing. Everything he gives comes from his mercy. 

Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.

Original in Greek:

Kyrie eleison.
Christe eleison.
Kyrie eleison.

Some worship traditions translate Kyrie eleison as “Lord, have mercy.” Some leave it untranslated as is done for words like “Amen” and “Alleluia.”

Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison are the first words in the main part of the Divine Service, either as a cry of repentance or as a prayer for God’s mercy in all aspects of life.

Kyrie.png
The Threefold Kyrie, tune from Luther’s German Mass with English Text. Book of Hymns (WELS, 1920, 1931)

The second use, as a prayer for God’s mercy in all aspects of life, often includes Kyrie eleison or” Lord, have mercy” as a response in a litany that brings the requests for the Lord to have mercy.  See “Help, Save, Have Mercy on Us” for such a responsive Kyrie prayer that has a very long history.

In Matins (Morning Prayer) and Vespers (Evening Prayer) Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison or their translation appear in some form at the end of the service before the Lord’s Prayer.

As short as the Kyrie is, it has been set to music, both as the short Kyrie, and as a Kyrie with extended petitions.

Here it is from Bach’s Mass in B Minor:

Here it is in German, known to English-speaking Lutherans as “Kyrie, God, Father in heaven above”:

Here it is as a responsive litany, sung by pastor and people. Text uses some of the petitions from “Help, Save, Have Mercy on Us” (Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom). (Video and audio quality aren’t the best, but the performance was led by Regina H. Fryxell, who was the composer / arranger.)  Here the Kyrie is followed by the Gloria.

A ‘Mass’ of Prayers

Kyrie

Father,
do not look on my many sins,
but in your mercy
provide for all my needs,
food, clothing, shelter,
for I cannot survive without these,
or without you.
Lord, have mercy.

Jesus,
you gave yourself for us all
as the Lamb of God
to bear our sins.
Remember me, whom you bought
with your own blood.
Christ, have mercy.

Spirit,
keep breathe into my heart
the Word of your Gospel.
Light that flame of faith in my heart,
and keep it burning.
Strengthen, counsel and comfort me.
I need your power to live connected to God.
I need your power to make my light shine.
Lord, have mercy.

Gloria in Excelsis

Glory to you, O Lord,
heavenly king, almighty Father.
You dwell above all things
yet you looked down on me in love
and gave me peace and goodwill
in your Son, Jesus Christ my Lord.
My praise is so weak.
I am so distracted.
But still, I lift my voice to praise and thank you
for your grace, mercy, patience and love.

Glory to you, Lord Jesus Christ,
Lamb of God, Son of the Father.
You came as promised to bear my griefs,
carry my sorrows,
and bear the sin of the whole world
like a sacrificial lamb.
You became what you were not,
human, weak, poor, despised,
to make me what I was not,
a child of God, holy and blameless in your sight.
You know human weakness first hand.
Hear my prayers, and bring my needs
to your Father in heaven.

Glory to you, Holy Spirit.
You are living and active
and so is the Word you inspired
the Apostles and Prophets to write.
Write your Word in my heart.
Be the lamp to my feet and the light for my path.
Live in me. Move me. Govern and guide me
so I live to your glory,
and not to my own,
so in your time
I may enjoy your glory forever.

You alone, Father, Son and Holy Spirit,
are holy, exalted, and worthy of all praise,
now and forever.
Amen.

Credo

I believe, Lord.
Help me overcome my unbelief.
Your Word
is set before my eyes
and falls upon my ears.
I know it.
Still, help me overcome my doubts.
The world around me
is setting its own truth
before my eyes
and into my ears,
and its false truths are everywhere.
Yours is only in your book.
Turn my attention
back to your book.
Strengthen my faith.
Move me to accept your truth as fact
and to turn a deaf ear and a blind eye
to the lies from without
and the lies from within.
Finally,
send your Holy Spirit
to do his work
to govern and guide
and strengthen me
day by day
so that I always trust
every Word,
every promise,
every fact
your Spirit moved
the holy men to write,
and that my trust
may show
in all I say
and do.

Sanctus

Dirty, broken, hurting
is all humanity.
All the earth is full of sin and pain.
But you are holy.
“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.”
Isaiah couldn’t bear to look at your glory,
but you lifted him up
and purified his lips.
You, Christ, have come to us
once in human flesh and blood,
now in ink and paper,
water and Word,
bread and wine,
your body and blood,
to purify us
so that we may stand
in your presence.
Hosanna!

Agnus Dei

O Jesus,
the pain you suffered on the cross
was all mine.
It was my sin you carried,
along with that of the whole world.
What mercy!

O Jesus,
the pains I suffer now,
all griefs, all sorrows,
is all my fault,
and it weighs heavy on me.
You alone can carry it,
in fact, you have already taken it away.
And you tell me to come,
in all my weariness
with all my burdens,
and you promise
to give me rest and refreshment.
What mercy!

O Jesus,
on that cross,
you said one word.
One sweet word.
A word just as momentous
as “Let there be light.”
That one word was
tetelesthai.
“It is finished.”
You paid for my sin.
You brought me to your Father.
You made me your own.
I need to do nothing
but trust you.
What peace!

(Nunc Dimittis)

Old Simeon had peace
for one reason.
He had seen you,
the one he had hoped for
all his life,
the one he waited to see
for many years.
That’s why
he held you in his arms
and sang,
“O baby Jesus,
you are the shining light
of the whole world.
You are Abraham’s
shield and great reward
and the glory of all his children.
Now I can go.
You kept your promise to me.
My tired, old eyes see you now,
but I will see you again
in the greater glory that is coming.”

Source: Paul C. Stratman © 2017

The Lutheran Hymnary

TLHy.pngThe Lutheran Hymnary was published in 1913 by American Lutheran church bodies that were of Norwegian heritage. The first setting of the Divine Service is quite different from the Common Service tradition, reflecting the traditions in Norwegian Lutheran worship.

The second setting of the Divine Service, along with Vespers were taken and slightly modified from the Evangelical-Lutheran Hymn-Book (1913), from Concordia Publishing House, and have mostly the same music that would later appear in The Lutheran Hymnal (1941).

The Lutheran Hymnary did not have a large liturgical or prayer section like The Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church. However, it did have some unique gems such as the prayers in the first setting of the Divine Service and the Exhortation in both settings tlhy_title_pageof the communion services.  So we make the texts available here. Along with the services below, The Lutheran Hymnary also included a musical version of the Litany, nearly identical in text to the one in Common Service Book, and a selection of psalms. Along with the traditional introits and collects, The Lutheran Hymnary also included the collects of Veit Dietrich, which are also included below, and are also available here on A Collection of Prayers in revised form.

The Lutheran Hymnary is available in graphic pdf format on Google Books and on Archive.org.

The Lutheran Hymnary

  1. The Order of Morning Service (I) [pdf] [docx]
  2. The Evening Service (I) [pdf] [docx]
  3. The Order of Morning Service, or The Communion (II) [pdf] [docx]
    • Updated version in contemporary English [pdf] [docx]
  4. Order of Evening Service, or Vespers (II) [pdf] [docx]
    • Updated version in contemporary English [pdf] [docx]
  5. The Collects of Veit Dietrich (Traditional English) [pdf] [docx]